2006

Βασική Υπερηχοκαρδιoγραφία: Στοιχειώδεις μετρήσεις και φυσιολογικές τιμές

Pathophysiology of hypoxia during apnoea. A short review

Current issues concerning coagulation disorders in severe sepsis and multiple trauma patients

Impact of haemodynamic alterations on arterial blood gases during off-pump coronary revascularization

Colloids vs crystalloids as prehydration regimen before spinal anaesthesia in elderly normotensive and hypertensive patients

Anterior approach to celiac plexus block using CT Guidance

Echocardiography has a predominant role in the diagnosis of many clinical questions perioperatively. The techniques for i) measurement of the most important anatomic dimensions and ii) for calculations of the basic normal and functional values are briefly described. The advantages and limitations of each method are also mentioned.

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The tremendous impact of hypoxia on any critical organ, namely the brain and the heart, are well known, at least because of their obvious result. The question asked by many: “For how long can the patient tolerate apnoea?” cannot be answered with certainty for any given patient. The long list of possible problems that may arise during the transport of O2 from the anesthetic circuit to the very last cell of the human organism precludes any possibility of precise calculation. Hypoxia of critical tissues (the brain and the heart) has deleterious pathophysiologic effects on them.

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Perturbations of the clotting system frequently accompany systemic inflammatory states. Coagulation abnormalities, specifically an imbalance between coagulant and anticoagulant mechanisms, are a frequent occurrence in patients with septic shock and trauma and have been associated with an increased mortality.

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This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of prehydration with crystalloids or colloids for preventing spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension in elderly normotensive and hypertensive patients. Eighty physical status ASA I-III elderly patients were enrolled in this study, receiving spinal anesthesia.

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Cardiac stabilization during “off-pump” coronary revascularization (OPCAB) has been implicated in causing intraoperative hemodynamic disturbances. Stroke volume and cardiac output reductions may alter the ventilation/perfusion ratio in the lungs and compromise the gas exchange. This study was conducted to determine the impact of heart’s stabilization on arterial blood-gas profile in patients undergoing OPCAB surgery.

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Neurolytic celiac plexus block (NCPB) is a useful technique for pain control in patients with intra-abdominal tumors or pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis that does not respond to other therapeutic modalities (not interventional). The anterior approach for NCPB has been considered a relatively safe approach, with a low rate of complications and little risk of neurologic injury secondary to the spread of a neurolytic agent. This is the first national case report of successful NCPB using the anterior approach under CT guidance.

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