Review Articles

Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is often necessary in order to deal with anxiety, pain and stress that may accompany patients at the hospital during invasive, unpleasant and/or painful procedures. The literature has not presented firm conclusions regarding ideal sedative agents in terms of efficacy and safety in PSA or even present firm data regarding superiority of specific drugs over others which are considered the “gold-standard” in sedation (i.e. propofol). Continue reading
Neuraxial analgesia and anaesthesia in an obstetric patient is associated with the risk of accidental dural puncture and subsequent development of a post dural puncture headache (PDPH). The management of accidental dural puncture requires consists of prevention of PDPH, patient’s information, early diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring until remission of PDPH. Continue reading
Η οξεία εγκεφαλική βλάβη (acute brain injury, ABI) αποτελεί συχνό κλινικό πρόβλημα, που απαιτεί άμεση και επείγουσα αντιμετώπιση. Περιλαμβάνει οποιαδήποτε πάθηση επηρεάζει οξέως το κεντρικό νευρικό σύστημα (ΚΝΣ), [π.χ. τραυματική εγκεφαλική βλάβη (traumatic brain injury, TBI)] και έχει δύο συστατικά, την πρωτογενή (primary brain injury, PBI) και τη δευτερογενή εγκεφαλική βλάβη (secondary brain injury, SBI)1. Continue reading
Obstetric haemorrhage is the leading cause of mortality in parturients. In massive haemorrhage, fibrinogen is the first coagulation factor to decrease and a value < 2 gr/lt is a prognostic indicator of severe haemorrhage. A small decrease in fibrinogen leads to an increased effect on coagulability and continued haemorrhage. Coagulation disorders may be due to either consumption of coagulation factors or dilution. The type, severity and time of onset of the coagulation disorder depend on both the size and the cause of the haemorrhage. Early recognition of the cause of haemorrhage, low fibrinogen and its immediate correction are essential in the perioperative management of haemorrhage. Continue reading
According to IASP (International Association for the Study of Pain) the definition of pain is: An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with, or resembling that associated with, actual or potential tissue damage. Furthermore, is expanded on: 1) Pain and nociception are different phenomena. Pain cannot be inferred solely from activity in sensory neurons and 2) Verbal description is only one of several behaviors to express pain; inability to communicate does not negate the possibility that a human or a nonhuman animal experiences pain. Continue reading
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an umbrella term that defines a group of inherited diseases (in-cluding sickle cell anaemia (SCA), HbSC and HbSβ-thalassaemia) characterized by mutations in the gene encoding the haemoglobin subunit β1. One of the most frequent and debilitant complications of the disease is the vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC), which is mediated by multicell adhesion between red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells, platelets, and endo-thelial cells and causes intense pain in conse-quence of impaired oxygen supply, but also in-farction-reperfusion injury2,3. Continue reading
Acute sepsis-related kidney damage (S-AKI) is a common complication of the critically ill patient, with high mortality rates. Prevention of S-AKI is a daunting task because by the time patients seek medical help, most have already developed acute kidney damage. Thus early detection is an issue of utmost importance. Recent studies show that Continue reading
The introduction of the laparoscopic and robotic assisted laparoscopic technique in total hysterectomy patients alleviated significantly their postoperative pain and lowered the opioid consumption rate during their recovery. In the present article, we review the use of the Transversus Abdominis Plane block technique and the probability of further lessening the patients’ pain. Hereby we adduce the different variations of the TAP-block and the results of several clinical trials, after a thorough search in the existing literature. Continue reading
Inhalational anaesthesia induction technique goes back to 1846, when the first public administration of inhaled ether was demonstrated in the Ether Dome of Massachusetts General Hospital. Ever since, there has been a dizzying evolution in anaesthetic practice, but the main objectives of anaesthesia have remained unnegotiable. Inhalational sevoflurane induction is still applied in paediatric cases, non-compliant adult patients and in cases of difficult airway1. Continue reading
Post-extubation dysphagia (PED) is a common complication in ICU patients and it worsens their prognosis and quality of their life after their discharge from the ICU. This pathologic condition is independently associated with adverse patient outcomes and high-risk patients should be early recognized, because this situation can lead to aspiration pneumonia. The underlying pathophysiology of dysphagia is multifactorial. A team consisted of doctors, nurses, dietologists, speech therapists and physical therapists should deal with the situation. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and videofluoroscopy are necessary tests for the assessment. Screening ICU protocols lead in early identification and proper therapeutic interventions. Continue reading
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