In this first issue of the Greek e-journal of Perioperative Medicine
for 2019various articles are presented.
The first article of Katsanoulas K., et al
provides a thorough explanation of viscoelastic haemostatic assays (VHA) monitoring, mainly with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®
), in contrast to the traditional coagulation management with standard laboratory tests.It may be helpful for young clinicians and those interested to understand this relatively new technique. It provides also evidence based information from current published literature, where it’s utility and value has been proven. Continue reading
Clinical management of acute severe bleeding in the perioperative setting is one of the major challenges for an anesthetic team. The dynamic nature of bleeding calls for rapid diagnosis and immediate interventions. Trauma induced coagulopathy and/or perioperative coagulopathy management is crucial for successful and life saving interventions, involving blood and blood product transfusions in an individualized and rationalized manner. Traditional coagulopathy monitoring using bleeding times offers very little in prediction and guidance during severe bleeding. They are mostly designed for stable patients under anticoagulant treatments and their very long turnaround time renders them impractical for clinical use in this setting. In contrast, viscoelastic devices are designed to assess whole-blood clotting kinetics and whole-blood clot strength and better reflect the interaction between pro- and anti-coagulants, pro- and anti-fibrinolytic factors, and platelets. The most notable advance in haemostatic management using viscoelastic testing is a fibrin-specific clot assessment. The system uses a combination of assays to characterize the coagulation profile for obtaining more detailed information about haemostasis and suggests the cause of the observed coagulopathy. The article offers a thorough and concise presentation of both traditional and viscoelastic methods and techniques in use during severe haemorrhage, followed by a literature review on the use of viscoelastic haemostatic monitoring in different clinical settings. Continue reading
Central venous pressure (CVP) measurement along with invasive arterial pressure measurement are the two most widely used monitoring parameters in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and in the operating room (OR).In contrast with left heart catheterization, right heart catheterization is a procedure which is performed in the daily clinical practice both in the OR and the ICU and with which all anesthesiologists are well familiarized. Despite the limited usefulness of absolute CVP values, analysis of the CVP waveform offers important information regarding patient’s underlying pathology.ECG tracing should be taken concurrently with CVP measurement and CVP should be evaluated and interpreted in relationship to the ECG. CVP values are affected by several parameters such as mechanical ventilation and PEEP application, which should be taken into account when interpreting CVP measurements.
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a relatively common abnormality and in most of the cases it is asymptomatic and has no clinical significance. In regard to etiology, TR can be categorized as primary (or organic) and secondary (or functional).TR allows blood to flow backwards across the valve from the right ventricle to the right atrium during right ventricle systole. When blood backflow is significant there may be giant systolic V waves in the CVP waveform. In case of severe TR, the giant systolic V waves are so prominent that the CVP waveform resembles the right ventricular pressure contour. This is called ventricularization of the right atrial pressure waveform. In contrast with the giant V waves in the CVP waveform, ventricularization of the right atrial pressure waveform is the most specific diagnostic criterion of severe TR. TR disease is diagnosed and thoroughly evaluated by echocardiography, which can give us information about its etiology and severity. However, CVP waveform may be indicative of TR and therefore could trigger further investigation and evaluation by echocardiography. Continue reading
In 2014, the European Society of Cardiology and European Society of Anaesthesiology published guidelines on preoperative assessment and management of patients scheduled for non-cardiac surgery. Compliance with these guidelines has not been evaluated in Greece. The main objective was to evaluate the level of compliance with the published recommendations. A retrospective, observational study was designed. The status 1–4 who underwent scheduled non-cardiac surgery between February 2016 and April 2016 in five tertiary hospitals were reviewed. Patients treated in intensive care units were excluded. Primary outcomes were the rates of compliance with the published recommendations for preoperative testing, continuation or not of medication and overall compliance. The secondary outcome measure was the time required to perform unnecessary preoperative investigations. 3197 (63.8%) preoperative electrocardiograms, 522 (83.8%) cardiac ultrasonographic imaging procedures, and 55 (93.2%) non-invasive imaging stress tests should not have been performed. Only 101 (30.3%) and 4 (6%) patients who should or could have been evaluated by cardiac ultrasonography or a non-invasive stress test, respectively, underwent the recommended tests. None of the 1055 patients who should have discontinued angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers for hypertension did so; 31 (53.4%) patients with known systolic heart failure were not taking these medications as recommended. Only 27.3% of patients were being managed exactly as recommended. The 2014 guidelines for preoperative management of non-cardiac surgery patients are not being followed appropriately by hospitals in Greece. Continue reading
The electrical properties of the skin, also known as electrodermal activity (EDA), are considered as an indirect measure of autonomous nervous system. Along with that, the effects of noise-induced stress in intensive care units, is well explored. This study explores the noise-induced acute electrodermal activity changes in adult critical care patients and to compare these changes with cardiovascular effects of the same stress (noise) stimulus. Skin conductance variability, noise level, selected hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were monitored during 4 hour routine daytime intensive care nursing and treatment in an adult Intensive Care Unit. Average ambient noise levels during the time window (4 min) before the stimulation were 54.33(2.65) dB for Group A and 55.65(3.31) dB, while the noise stimulation was on average for Group A 70.8 (1.98) dB, and for Group B: 71.31(3.31) dB. EDA changes to noise stimulus were more distinct than hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Yet, a weak relation was found between all EDA parameters and the particular noise level changes. Noise-induce stress causes more distinct EDA changes when measured immediately post stimulus. In addition, sedation level seems to affect the intensity of these changes. However, further studies are needed in to order to reach a definite conclusion. Continue reading
The case of a 33y old man is presented, who after a car accident, was transferred to the ED with a right hip dislocation and slightly obtunded but in a stable hemodynamic condition. After an emergent CT scan, a thoracic aortic rupture along with intestine rupture and retroperitoneal hematoma were noted. The patient was administered 1 g tranexamic acid (TXA) and 1 g fibrinogen concentrate (FC) preoperatively and then was transferred to the OR, where primarily, under monitored anesthetic care (MAC) the aortic trauma was restored intraluminally and then, under general anesthesia, he underwent laparotomy and hip dislocation reduction. During operation, no diffuse bleeding was noted, nor was any transfusion of blood or blood product necessary. After a short ICU stay the patient was discharged in good general health state. The aim of this case report is to present a case of traumatic aortic rupture bleeding, effectively managed with prophylactic tranexamic acid (TXA) and fibrinogen concentrate (FC) administration without need of any kind of transfusion. Continue reading