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COVID-19 has officially been declared as a pandemic. Although the ultimate course and impact of COVID-19 is yet to be seen, the disease has already overwhelmed health care infrastructure. Operation theaters are high-risk areas for transmission of respiratory infections given the involvement of multiple staff, and the need for high transmission-risk aerosol generating activities. The current study aims to establish a guide for establishing optimum protection conditions that should be done before, during and after surgical intervention. A clear plan has to be developed to only provide essential surgical care during the pandemic. All the elective and non-essential procedures need to be deferred. Whenever close contact is mandated with the suspected patients, the staff should wear proper personal protective equipment. There should be proper training in the appropriate use and application of PPE. The most important thing in the chain is hand hygiene and 70% alcohol solutions should be placed strategically. Continue reading
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. SARS-CoV-2 is a new virus that has not been previously identified in humans. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 commonly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), myocardial injury, ventricular arrhythmias, and shock, all of which increase their risk of cardiac arrest. The main objective of this brief review is to raise the discussion on the possible indication of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 in prone position as a way to save time, since the entire process of decubitus change is complex and often slow, due to the number of devices used in these patients, such as catheters, infusion pumps and monitors. In addition to a price of high demand for stressed human resources. Continue reading
We have noted an ongoing interest for the anaesthetic practices for caesarean section (CS) throughout Europe, which may differ from one country to the other for several reasons. In a very recent EJA article, a national survey in the Czech Republic and Slovakia has shown that national audits may allow and promote focusing on education and interstate cooperation. Impressively, even if the two countries were united in the past, the rate of general anaesthesia (GA) for CS in the Czech Republic was lowered from 34 to 26% for elective and from 59 to 39% for non-elective CS. This was not the case for the neighboring Slovakia, where the rate for GA was already low. Besides, in a 2017 survey from Austria, the rate of routine use for regional anaesthesia for CS reaches almost 100% and in France has a similar trend. Continue reading

Patients discharging the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) still need a high level of care because of the severity of their disease. In fact, they have an increased risk for readmission to the ICU. Moreover, urgent readmissions to the ICU are a widely used tool to assessment the quality of Health Care services. Although a lot of efforts are being made to reduce them, these adverse events still exist. It is noted that readmitted patients to the ICU have a much poorer prognosis, as its mortality rates are six times higher, and also have eleven times higher probability to die in hospital compared with other hospitalized patients.

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The concept of sustainability in anesthesia, referred as "Environmentally Sustainable Anesthesia", can be characterized by the safe perioperative management of equipment and medicines by the anesthesiologist, without harming the environment. Τhe term "Green Anesthesia" also relates to the priority to environmental sustainability even if the economic factor comes second, but in essence, sustainable and green anesthesia refer to common actions and practices. The problem of environmental impacts from anesthesiology practice arises when managing chemical agents to ensure the proper conditions for safe anesthesia administration, by pharmaceutical means and special techniques. The main problem is the Inhaled agents (Ν2Ο and volatile anesthetics), as part of them is released into the atmosphere by forming Wasted Anesthetic Gases (WAGs). It begins in the operating room and ends into the atmosphere. Atmosphere is essential for life on earth.

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Clinical management of acute severe bleeding in the perioperative setting is one of the major challenges for an anesthetic team. The dynamic nature of bleeding calls for rapid diagnosis and immediate interventions. Trauma induced coagulopathy and/or perioperative coagulopathy management is crucial for successful and life saving interventions, involving blood and blood product transfusions in an individualized and rationalized manner. Traditional coagulopathy monitoring using bleeding times offers very little in prediction and guidance during severe bleeding. They are mostly designed for stable patients under anticoagulant treatments and their very long turnaround time renders them impractical for clinical use in this setting. In contrast, viscoelastic devices are designed to assess whole-blood clotting kinetics and whole-blood clot strength and better reflect the interaction between pro- and anti-coagulants, pro- and anti-fibrinolytic factors, and platelets. The most notable advance in haemostatic management using viscoelastic testing is a fibrin-specific clot assessment. The system uses a combination of assays to characterize the coagulation profile for obtaining more detailed information about haemostasis and suggests the cause of the observed coagulopathy. The article offers a thorough and concise presentation of both traditional and viscoelastic methods and techniques in use during severe haemorrhage, followed by a literature review on the use of viscoelastic haemostatic monitoring in different clinical settings. Continue reading
Central venous pressure (CVP) measurement along with invasive arterial pressure measurement are the two most widely used monitoring parameters in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and in the operating room (OR).In contrast with left heart catheterization, right heart catheterization is a procedure which is performed in the daily clinical practice both in the OR and the ICU and with which all anesthesiologists are well familiarized. Despite the limited usefulness of absolute CVP values, analysis of the CVP waveform offers important information regarding patient’s underlying pathology.ECG tracing should be taken concurrently with CVP measurement and CVP should be evaluated and interpreted in relationship to the ECG. CVP values are affected by several parameters such as mechanical ventilation and PEEP application, which should be taken into account when interpreting CVP measurements. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a relatively common abnormality and in most of the cases it is asymptomatic and has no clinical significance. In regard to etiology, TR can be categorized as primary (or organic) and secondary (or functional).TR allows blood to flow backwards across the valve from the right ventricle to the right atrium during right ventricle systole. When blood backflow is significant there may be giant systolic V waves in the CVP waveform. In case of severe TR, the giant systolic V waves are so prominent that the CVP waveform resembles the right ventricular pressure contour. This is called ventricularization of the right atrial pressure waveform. In contrast with the giant V waves in the CVP waveform, ventricularization of the right atrial pressure waveform is the most specific diagnostic criterion of severe TR. TR disease is diagnosed and thoroughly evaluated by echocardiography, which can give us information about its etiology and severity. However, CVP waveform may be indicative of TR and therefore could trigger further investigation and evaluation by echocardiography. Continue reading

Europe is currently experiencing an unprecedented influx of refugees, asylum seekers and other migrants. More than 1.5 million people arrived in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) in 2015, fleeing countries affected by war, conflict or economic crisis. Member States are increasingly faced with the need to address the public health consequences of this massive arrival of migrants from various parts of the world, which puts national health systems under pressure.

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Current evidence suggests that the combination of fluid administration and vasoconstrictive medications should be the main strategy for prevention and management of hypotension accompanying neuraxial anesthesia procedures during cesarean section. Research is still underway in relation to the most appropriate timing for fluid administration, the most appropriate fluid volume as well as the type of fluid that should be administered.

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One half of cortical thymoma patients develop myasthenia gravis (MG), an autoimmune disease affecting the voluntary muscles, while 15% of MG patients have thymomas. Thymectomy has been a mainstay in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and the management of such surgical patients is extremely demanding both at the physician’s and at the nurse’s level. In this paper we review some of the nursing interventions for patients with MG undergoing surgical removal of the thymus gland.

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