The reduction of homologous blood transfusions remains an important goal. The actual blood loss and the positive fluid balance during cardiac operations involving CPB result in a fall in the haematocrit and represent major risk factors for blood transfusions. Methods and techniques which lead to a decrease of haemodilution are important when aiming at fewer transfusions in such operations.

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Horner's syndrome or occulo-sympathetic paralysis is a disorder occurring infrequently as a complication of epidural anaesthesia. The incidence increases when epidural analgesia is used in obstetrics possibly because of physiological and anatomical changes in obstetric patients favouring spread of the local anaesthetic.

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