Mechanical ventilation can have adverse effects on pulmonary function. The present review focuses on what has recently emerged as one of the most serious potential complications of mechanical ventilation, ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI). For the purposes of this review, the forms of lung injury will be discussed according to the following headings: barotrauma, volutrauma, atelectrauma, and biotrauma.

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Mechanical ventilation can have adverse effects on pulmonary function. The present review focuses on the effects of perioperative mechanical ventilation and its role in ventilator-induced lung injury. For the purposes of this review, lung protective ventilatory strategies will be discussed.

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