Nosocomial infections continue to increase all over the world and remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. There are three elements required for the transmission of nosocomial infections: a reservoir of microbial agent, a susceptible host with a portal of entry receptive to the agent and a mode of transmission for the microbial agent.
Microorganisms that cause nosocomial infections derive primarily from human sources1-3
, but inanimate environmental sources are implicated in transmission4
Human reservoirs include patients, healthcare personnel, household members and visitors5
. People in hospitals are usually already in a ‘poor state of health’, impairing their defense against bacteria. Invasive devices impair natural lines of defense against pathogens and provide an easy route for infection. Patients already colonized at the time of admission are instantly put at greater risk when they undergo invasive procedures6
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