Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a serious final common pathway of a variety of neurologic injuries. Elevated ICP has consistently been associated with a poor outcome. It is a medical emergency requiring immediate intervention to prevent permanent damage to the brain. The Monro-Kellie doctrine states that the intracranial space is a fixed volume inside the skull. It describes the principle of homeostatic intracerebral volume regulation. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis and cerebral dynamics are important in order to understand the pathophysiology of intracranial hypertension. Venous occlusion, increased cerebral volume, increased blood volume, mass effect and cerebral edema are the major pathogenetic mechanisms of intracranial hypertension. The clinical manifestations of increased ICP are varied and unreliable. Headache, vomiting, disorientation, and lethargy are the main symptoms as well as symptoms and signs caused by cerebral herniation. ICP monitoring is widely used in clinical practice in order to improve patient outcome. It is especially useful as a robust predictor of cerebral perfusion, and can help to guide therapy and assess long‑term prognosis. Intraventricular catheters remain the gold standard for ICP monitoring, as they are the most reliable, accurate and cost‑effective, and allow therapeutic cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Intraparenchymal catheters are usually considered accurate, with the potential disadvantage that they measure localised pressure, which may not be reflective of global ICP. Furthermore, non‑invasive methods of ICP monitoring, such as transcranial Doppler, optic nerve sheath diameter, etc., have emerged as promising techniques for screening patients with raised ICP in settings where invasive techniques are either not feasible (patients with severe coagulopathy) or not available (setups without access to a neurosurgeon).

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