Effective postoperative analgesia in geriatric patients is both challenging and rewarding. Inadequate pain control after surgery is associated with adverse outcomes in the older patient. This review will attempt to describe the difficulty with assessment of pain and variations in pain experience of elder-ly patients. Physiological changes related to aging need to be also carefully considered, because a-ging is individualized and progressive. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes in geriatric patients, the higher incidence of co-morbidities and concurrent use of other drugs, must be carefully adjusted to suit each geriatric patient, concerning postoperative pain management. Medication for postoperative pain will be discussed. Unfortunately, many medications have not been studied well in the older population.Non-pharmacological approaches to postoperative pain management will not be discussed, although this would be an interesting topic for further discussion. Continue reading

The aim of this study was to examine and compare the efficacy and safety of combining strong opioids (transdermal fentanyl) with weak opioids (codeine or tramadol) for the management of severe cancer pain. Forty six patients (25 male / 21 female) aged 42-80 years were studied. According to an eleven-grade numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain, 10 = severe pain), they all had severe steady pain intensity greater than 5 (NRS >5) despite treatment with weak opioids and adjuvant drugs, as proposed by the 2nd step of the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder, at the maximum tolerated doses.

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