Echocardiography has a predominant role in the diagnosis of many clinical questions perioperatively. The techniques for i) measurement of the most important anatomic dimensions and ii) for calculations of the basic normal and functional values are briefly described. The advantages and limitations of each method are also mentioned.

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Ultrasound-based diagnostic techniques are now part of the cardiological patients’ chart, while echocardiography is used more often for intraoperative diagnostic as well, as monitoring practices by the anesthesiologist. This article will address the basic physical principles of the ultrasound waves and describe the interactions of ultrasound waves with tissues that lead to the generation of two-dimensional and Doppler ultrasound images

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