Echocardiography has a predominant role in the diagnosis of many clinical questions perioperatively. The techniques for i) measurement of the most important anatomic dimensions and ii) for calculations of the basic normal and functional values are briefly described. The advantages and limitations of each method are also mentioned.

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The value of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in cardiac surgery is well proven[1]. TEE is evolving as a perioperative monitoring and diagnostic tool in noncardiac surgery as well, especially for the treatment of high-risk cardio-vascular patients. Its significance lies in that it is the only direct method for imaging and eva-luating heart function.

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The pericardial diseases result in cardiovascular perturbations ranging from asymptomatic electrocardiographic findings (in pericarditis of end-stage renal disease) to circulatory shock (in acute hemorrhagic pericardial tamponade). Despite of clinical features that resemble right-, or left-side failure, the clinical management of pericardial pathology may differ significantly from those of ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and appropriate medical or surgical therapy is imperative.

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Ultrasound-based diagnostic techniques are now part of the cardiological patients’ chart, while echocardiography is used more often for intraoperative diagnostic as well, as monitoring practices by the anesthesiologist. This article will address the basic physical principles of the ultrasound waves and describe the interactions of ultrasound waves with tissues that lead to the generation of two-dimensional and Doppler ultrasound images

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