Case Reports

Pneumothorax is a collection of air in the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall and depending on its cause it could be either spontaneous or traumatic. Tension Pneumothorax (TPT) can be a cause of cardiac arrest (CA) or might be a complication after chest compressions. According to the 2015 European Resuscitation Council guidelines on resuscitation, TP is considered one of the reversible causes of CA, which should be recognized and treated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Continue reading
West Nile virus is an RNA virus, member of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. First isolated in 1937, the virus has re-emerged after giving several outbreaks after the 1990 both in Europe and North America. Though severe neurological infection is only 1% of the total cases, mortality can reach 14% after CNS involvement. The present case report describes a case of WNV encephalitis with concomitant acute flaccid paralysis. Continue reading
Mitochondrial diseases represent a wide range of disorders caused by impairment of mitochondrial metabolism and energy production. We report a case of an uneventful perioperative management of a pregnant patient with early childhood-onset mitochondrial encephalopathy, attributed to a novel AIFM1 (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Mitochondrion-associated 1) mutation. After a multidisciplinary team consultation, it was decided to be posted for elective caesarean delivery at 36+2 weeks of gestation, under titrated combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia and multimodal analgesia. Unique anaesthetic challenges were to ensure normoglycaemia, normothermia and adequate hydration while avoiding perioperative stress and acidosis. Continue reading
Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy, recommended for superficial bladder tumors, triggers side effects in fewer than 5% of patients. Yet, when encountered, high level of suspition and early detection is essential for their succesfull management. In the present article, we present a case of severe sepsis and Steven Johnson syndrome in a male patient after intravesical BCG instillation. Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is frequently used as the treatment of choice for carcinoma in situ and non-invasive high-grade superficial tumor of the urinary bladder1. BCG is a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis and is the most widely used intravesical agent2. Adverse events occur in fewer than 5 % of cases, ranging from mild local symptoms to severe sepsis and death1-3. In the present article, we report a case of successful management of septic shock with concomitant Steven Johnson syndrome after intravesical BCG instillation and perform a short review of the relevant literature. Continue reading
Pericardial decompression syndrome (PDS) is a rare but eventually fatal syndrome, which occurs after pericardial drainage. In this report we describe a patient who suffered from cardiovascular collapse and pulmonary edema after pericardial drainage. A male patient aged 42yrs complained of progressive dyspnea over the past 2 months and presented with clinical signs of pericardial tamponade. The patient underwent a surgical subxiphoid pericardial drainage under general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. After pericardial drainage of 2.2lt, the patient was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit, where he was extubated2 hours later. Immediately after extubation, he showed clinical signs of cardiovascular collapse and pulmonary edema. The patient was reintubated immediately and placed on mechanical ventilation. He was extubated after 12hrs. His postoperative course was uneventful and he was discharged from the hospital after a few days. Continue reading
Anaesthetic management of patients with comorbidities can be challenging and requires rigorous planning. Peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) do not compromise haemodynamics or pulmonary function. We present the management of a patient with symptomatic syringomyelia, severe pulmonary hypertension, thrombophilia and obstructive sleep apnoea undergoing hip fixation. Combined psoas compartment and sciatic nerve block was conducted and the patient remained stable perioperatively. She had an uneventful recovery and was discharged three days later. Patients with multiple comorbidities are subject to high perioperative risk and should be managed individually. Regional anaesthesia can be a last resort that leads to a better outcome. Continue reading
Though metformin is considered as first choice drug in type II diabetes, clinicians should be alert both for presence of potential contraindications to its use and to possible adverse reactions. Bad therapy compliance along and/or concomitant comorbidities may lead to serious toxicity. We hereby describe a case of extreme lactic acidosis- associated with metformin therapy- in an elder woman, managed with Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Intensive Care Unit environment. Short review of the literature about the place of renal replacement therapy in such cases is also discussed. Continue reading

We present a case report concerning fatal bacteremia caused by Pantoeaagglomerans in a critically ill patient.

Pantoea is a genus of Enterobacteriacae Gram-negative bacteria family that includes at least 20 species; mostly isolated in the ecological niches.

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The case of a 33y old man is presented, who after a car accident, was transferred to the ED with a right hip dislocation and slightly obtunded but in a stable hemodynamic condition. After an emergent CT scan, a thoracic aortic rupture along with intestine rupture and retroperitoneal hematoma were noted. The patient was administered 1 g tranexamic acid (TXA) and 1 g fibrinogen concentrate (FC) preoperatively and then was transferred to the OR, where primarily, under monitored anesthetic care (MAC) the aortic trauma was restored intraluminally and then, under general anesthesia, he underwent laparotomy and hip dislocation reduction. During operation, no diffuse bleeding was noted, nor was any transfusion of blood or blood product necessary. After a short ICU stay the patient was discharged in good general health state. The aim of this case report is to present a case of traumatic aortic rupture bleeding, effectively managed with prophylactic tranexamic acid (TXA) and fibrinogen concentrate (FC) administration without need of any kind of transfusion. Continue reading
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