Clinical evaluation of pupils is considered as an essential part of neurological examination. The pupillary response to light is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Numerous factors affect pupils dynamics, like e.g. luminance, visual field area, pain, drug administration, age, the functional integrity of anatomical structures involved, e.t.c. Moreover, pupillometry card method and examination of pupil reaction with the use of a penlight is subjective to a lot of bias. Portable infrared pupillometry allows a more objective and detail evaluation of pupil’s dynamics. That’s why it has already found applications in various clinical areas, like e.g. neurology, psychology, ophthalmology, endocrinology, anesthesia, pain management, intensive care, emergency medicine. This review focuses on physiology of pupil’s dynamics and on applications of infrared pupillometry in perioperative setting.

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