The occurrence of intraoperative oxygenation impairment is common even in healthy individuals and will vary depending on the patient and the type of surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of oxygenation impairment in patients with normal lung function and to study the safety and efficacy of three different recruitment strategies. Out of a total number of 430 patients, 150 patients developed intraoperative oxygenation impairment, which was defined as the drop of PaO2/FiO2 ratio below 300. These 150 patients were randomly assigned into four study groups according to the recruitment strategy applied. Group A (N: 38): Application of three hyperinflations of the lungs at airway pressure 40cmH2O for 10 sec, followed by an increase in PEEP from 5 to 10cmH2O. Group B (N: 38): Increase in PEEP from 5 to 10cmH2O. Group C (N: 37): Application of three hyperinflations of the lungs at airway pressure 40cmH2O for 10 sec, without any PEEP alteration and Group D (N: 37): No maneuver. Measurements were taken at the phase of oxygenation deterioration and at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60min after applying the maneuvers and also before extubation. From a total of 430 patients 150 developed oxygenation impairment (38.4%). The median onset time of the deterioration was 30min after intubation and mechanical ventilation. In group A the PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased significantly immediately after the maneuvers and remained elevated until extubation. In group B the PaO2/FiO2 ratio presented a gradual increase to significant levels before extubation. In group C, the instant post-maneuver increase of oxygenation was not sustained until extubation. Finally in group D a gradual decrease of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was recorded until the end of surgery. According to the results of our study, one third of patients developed intraoperative oxygenation impairment approximately half an hour after intubation. The application of three hyperinflations of the lungs at an airway pressure of 40cmH2O for 10 sec, followed by an increase in PEEP from 5 to 10cmH2O proved to be the most effective treatment of impaired oxygenation.

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Factors affecting cardiac function in dialysis patients include arterial blood pressure, anemia, intra-vascular volume and the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). We investigated the acute and chronic effects of basilic vein transposition (mean upper arm brachial artery-basilic vein anastomosis) on both the cardiovascular system and the oxygen status.

Sixteen patients with end stage renal failure were enrolled in this study. Patients with heart failure, pericardial effusion or valvular heart disease were not included in the study. Echocardiography (preoperatively and six months after, stages 1 and 2 respectively) and a Swan-Ganz catheter (perioperatively) were used to assess the hemodynamic status during the phases of AVF construction. Flow measurements were made in the parts of the AVF system before, during and after the construction of the AVF.Moreover, at the same time phases blood sampling from the arterial line and the pulmonary artery catheter was performed, in order to assess oxygen and acidbase status.

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