tramadol

The aim of this study was to compare the combination of oral tramadol and midazolam to oral midazolam alone, in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy, as an oral premedication, regarding also sedation and postoperative pain relief. Sixty children selected for elective adenotonsillectomy were enrolled in this randomized, controlled prospective study. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Group M (n=30) received 0.5 mg.kg-1 oral midazolam and group MT (n=30) received 0.2 mg.kg-1 oral midazolam with 1 mg.kg-1 oral tramadol as a premedication 30min preoperatively. Standard general anesthesia technique was used.

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The study compares the efficacy of postoperative analgesia after the intravenous administration of opioids (nalbuphine, tramadol or morphine) in combination with ketamine in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.Eighty eight patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned in three groups. In Group A (n=31) Morphine was administered {bolus dose (BD) 0.05mg/Kg and continuous infusion (CI) at a dose [mg/24h =18-(agex0.15)]}, in Group B (n=28) Nalbuphine (BD 0.2mg/kg and CI at a rate 0.05mg/kg/h) and in Group C (n=29) Tramadol (BD 1.5mg/Kg and CI at a rate 0.15mg/Kg/h).

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The aim of this study was to examine and compare the efficacy and safety of combining strong opioids (transdermal fentanyl) with weak opioids (codeine or tramadol) for the management of severe cancer pain. Forty six patients (25 male / 21 female) aged 42-80 years were studied. According to an eleven-grade numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain, 10 = severe pain), they all had severe steady pain intensity greater than 5 (NRS >5) despite treatment with weak opioids and adjuvant drugs, as proposed by the 2nd step of the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder, at the maximum tolerated doses.

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